Although forward osmosis (FO) has escalating prospective applications, several key challenges are still facing this technology, such as membrane fouling, concentration polarization and reverse solute flux.
This necessitates the development of novel membranes by integrating nanomaterials that possess extraordinary features such as the evolutionary Graphene (Gr) family nanomaterials. Gr-based nanomaterials have promising ability to be integrated with FO membranes, to enhance water flux and overcome the challenges of FO technology, i.e. reverse solute flux and fouling.
In this chapter, the fabricated Gr-based membranes for FO application were evaluated, analysed and compared, particularly the performance of different fabrication strategies including surface modification, free standing and bulk fabrication.
Accordingly, here we critically review all the studies performed to integrate Gr materials with FO membranes, focusing on membrane efficiency including water flux and reverse solute flux, in addition to antifouling ability. Moreover, the different strategies for Gr materials integration are assessed.