Interplay of charge between bacteria and electrode has led to emergence of bioelectrochemical systems which leads to applications such as production of electricity, wastewater treatment, bioremediation and production of value added products.
Many electroactive bacteria have been identified that have unique external electron transport systems. Coupling of electron transport with carbon metabolism has opened a new approach of carbon dioxide sequestration. The electron transport mechanism involves various cellular and sub cellular molecules. The outer membrane cytochromes, Mtr-complex and Ech-complex are few key molecules involved in electron transport in many electrogenic bacteria. Few cytochrome independent acetogenic electroactive bacteria were also discovered using Rnf complex to transport electrons.
For improved productivity, an efficient bioreactor design is mandatory. It should encompass all certain critical issues such as microbial cell retention, charge dissipation, separators and simultaneous product recovery.