Anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are changing our Earth’s climate very rapidly and causing global warming phenomenon.
There is scientific, social, and political consensus that 20% of global GHG emissions are due to the transport sector that is also blamed for increasing oil demand worldwide. The growth in the transport sector is estimated to increase by 1.3% per year until 2030. The increase in GHG emissions and high demand for fuel in the transport sector can be reduced significantly by replacing fossil fuels with liquid biofuels, which are derived from plant materials and appear to be carbon-neutral, renewable, and capable for cultivation under harsh environments.
The plant materials used in producing liquid biofuels are also a potential source of value-added products such as feed, materials and chemicals, in addition to biofuels. This chapter reviews the current trends in liquid biofuel systems on global platform and criteria for sustainability pertaining to liquid biofuels. The three types of sustainability criteria for liquid biofuels, including economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social sustainability are discussed in detail.