The ongoing climate crisis, mainly caused by the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), gives rise to an urgent need for solutions to re-convert industrial waste gases and emissions into useful chemicals (Lal, 2005). Concentrated streams of carbon dioxide (CO2) are continuously generated and emitted by a variety of anthropogenic activities.
These include both biogenic sources (e.g., organic waste and wastewater treatment plants, biogas plants, landfills, waste and biomass combustion facilities, etc.) and fossil-carbon sources (e.g., centralized fossil-based energy production facilities, engines, etc.)
In recent years, several efforts have been undertaken globally that are directed toward CO2 capture and converting CO2 into storable fuels and chemicals (ElMekawy et al., 2016). This conversion can be done via living bacteria as biocatalysts (Rojas et al., 2018a), via enzymes (Chiranjeevi et al., 2019), or electrocatalytically (Gutiérrez Sánchez et al., 2019).