Indonesia is the largest country in Southeast Asia. With a challenging geography, growing population and rapid economic expansion, the country is facing major challenges. That includes the choice of sustainable solutions to meet growing energy demand and shift towards renewables. Energy is an important and decisive enabler for promoting economic development and welfare.
Therefore, sustainable energy solutions must be fully integrated in sustainable development strategies.Policies are in place to promote mandatory targets for biofuels, introduce small-scale biogas in rural areas, and improve the sustainability of the palm oil industry, among others. Some actions have been strongly criticized due to negative environmental impacts, such as the allowed expansion of oil palm plantations on natural forest land.
Specific efforts and monitoring measures are needed to make sure that the deployment of modern bioenergy and biofuels takes a sustainable path. Only then can such development generate economic value and welfare without jeopardizing future opportunities. Science-based policy can contribute in this direction.